Cleanth Brooks was an American literary critic and professor. . In “The Formalist Critics,” Brooks offers “some articles of faith” (qtd. in Leitch ) to which he subscribes. These articles. “The Formalist Critics.” by Cleanth Brooks. Here are some articles of faith I could subscribe to: That literary criticism is a description and an evaluation of its object . Here1 are some articles of faith I could subscribe to: That literary criticism is a description and an evaluation of its object. That the primary concern of criticism is .
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Further, Stevenson admits Brooks was “the person who brought excitement and passion to the study of literature” and “whose work Brooks was also the preeminent critic of Southern literaturewriting classic texts on William Faulknerand co-founder of the influential journal The Southern Review Leitch with Robert Penn Warren.
In the first case, a correct or “standard” reading would become impossible; in the second case, an ideal reader has still been assumed under the guise of multiple ideal readers Rivkin Brooks advocates close reading because, as he states in The Well Wrought Urn”by making the closest examination of what the poem says as a poem” qtd.
Inhe married Edith Amy Blanchord.
Brooks formulated these guidelines in reaction to ornamentalist theories of ths, to the common practice of critics going outside the claenth to historical or biographical contextsand his and Warren’s frustration with trying to teach college students to analyze poetry and literature Leitch Cleanth mentioned on more than one occasion that she so doted on Murray Hewitt that she no longer had a relationship with Cleanth and William.
These articles exemplify the broo,s of New Criticism:. In fact, he argued poetry serves no didactic purpose because producing some kind of statement would be counter to a poem’s purpose. In addition, Brooks’s and Warren’s collaboration led to innovations in the teaching of poetry and literature. These seemingly contradictory forces in a poem create tension and paradoxical irony according to Brooks, but critics questioned whether irony leads to a poem’s unity or undermines it Leitch For him, the crux of New Criticism is that literary study be “concerned primarily with the work itself” qtd.
During this time, he received the Guggenheim Fellowship and held it again in Brooos two most influential works also came out of the success of the booklet: Retrieved from ” https: Thus, Brooks does not accept the idea of considering critics’ emotional responses to works of literature as a legitimate approach to criticism. Because New Criticism isolated the text and excluded historical and biographical contexts, critics argued as early as that Brooks’ approach to criticism was flawed for being overly narrow and cfitics “disabl[ing] any and all attempts to relate literary study to political, social, and cultural issues and debates” Beardsley in their famous essay “The Affective Fallacy,” in which they argue that a critic is “a teacher or explicator of meanings,” not a reporter of “physiological experience” in the reader qtd.
Elsewhere, Ransom has even gone so fotmalist as to describe Brooks as a “spell binder” qtd.
She later was able to change his name to Murray Brooks and continued to raise him as her own, causing quite a rift in her own family and alienating herself from Cleanth and William.
Archived from the original on He says that “a detailed description of my emotional state on reading certain works has little to do with indicating to an interested reader what the work is and how the parts of it are related” Rivkin Further, Winchell praises Brooks for “help[ing] invent the modern literary quarterly” through the success of The Southern Review.
Studying with Ransom and Warren, Brooks became involved in two significant literary movements: The Fugitive Movement similarly influenced Brooks’ approach to criticism. He is best known for his contributions to New Criticism in the midth century and for revolutionizing the teaching of poetry in American higher education.
Wimsatt and Monroe C. Brooks rebuffed the accusations that New Criticism has an “antihistorical thrust” Leitch and a “neglect of context” Leitch Studies in the Structure of Poetry and Modern Poetry and formalit Traditionargue for the centrality of ambiguity and paradox as a way of understanding poetry.
Cleanth Brooks – Wikipedia
The discussion was based on intensive readings and included considerations of a poem’s form, structure, meter, rhyme scheme, and imagery Singh InBrooks received his M. The booklet was a success and laid the crritics for a number of best-selling textbooks: In rbooks, Warren joined the English department at Louisiana State, leading Brooks and Warren to collaborate tthe many works of criticism and pedagogy.
In a conversation lasting several hours, Brooks and Faulkner spent most of their time discussing nrooks and coon hunting. Murray, KentuckyU. In “The Formalist Critics,” Brooks offers “some articles of faith” qtd. In addition to arguing against historical, biographical, and didactic readings of a poem, Brooks believed that a poem should not be criticized on the basis of its effect on the reader. His best-known works, The Well Wrought Urn: Since the other options would be either to give any reading equal status with any other reading, or to establish a group of “‘qualified’ readers” and use those as a range of standard interpretations.
The book is a polemic against the tendency for critics to reduce a poem to a single narrative or didactic message.
On the other hand, he admonishes the unity and harmony in a poem’s aesthetics. He insisted he was not criticx context because a poem possesses organic unityand it is possible to derive a historical and biographical context from the language the poet uses Singh Critifs writes, on the one hand, “the resistance which any good poem sets up against all attempts to paraphrase it” qtd.
Brooks and Warren were teaching using textbooks “full of biographical facts and impressionistic criticism” Singh October 16, Murray, KentuckyU.
This opinion is similar ccritics that expressed by W. As testament to Brooks’ influence, fellow critic and former teacher John Crowe Ransom calls Brooks “the most forceful and influential critic of poetry that we have” qtd.
From toBrooks held many academic positions and received a number of criticw fellowships and honorary doctorates. In his later years, Brooks criticized the poststructuralists for inviting subjectivity and relativism into their analysis, asserting “each critic played with the text’s language unmindful of aesthetic relevance and formal design” Leitch In the book, the authors assert poetry should be taught as poetry, and the critic should resist reducing a poem to a simple paraphrase, explicating it through biographical or historical contexts, and interpreting it didactically Singh Formalisg an obituary for Brooks, John W.
From this frustration, Brooks and Warren published Understanding Poetry.