English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘lactógeno placentario humano’. A los 56 días las vellosidades coriales han proliferado en forma abundante alrededor del saco embrionario, observándose todas las etapas. Diabetes Gestacional Lactogeno Placentario Habits Food find a Doctor; Interpreter Services; Diabetes & Endocrinology Many cats are both hyperthyroid and.
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The chronic stress induces functional adaptations in the hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenocortical HPA and in the sympathetic-medullary-adrenal axis SAM. Both axis are considered vital regulators of the homeostasis in vertebrates Seyle, ; Ostrandrer et al, We hypothesized that the chronic immobilization IMO stress in pregnancy rats produces alterations in prolactin concentrations in placental tissue and also changes in the response of SAM axis. Chronic stress by IMO was applied on days 12, 17 and 21 of pregnancy rats.
Lactoogeno the days of the pregnancy studied, chronic stress did not induce any changes neither in the localization nor in placental concentrations of PL-II and PLP-A. The VMA values in stressed mothers urines increased on the day 6 respecting the control ones at the same time of pregnancy.
VMA values in stressed rats at 21 days of pregnancy are smaller than the respective controls. We conclude that the chronic stressed mothers activated the SAM axis at the beginning of pregnancy and then they diminished the metabolites catecholamines that were interpreted as a stress adaptation coincident with normal concentrations of both placentary prolactines at this stage of the pregnancy.
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During pregnancy by maintaining both maternal and fetal homeostasis, mammals need to reorganize their metabolism. Successful maturation of the mammalian embryo is largely dependent upon the functioning of a specialized extraembryonic tissue of pregnancy, the placenta.
Soares, et al,Georgiades et al, The rodent possesses two placental structures: Two prominent regions are formed within the choriallantoic placenta: Four differentiated trophoblast cell phenotypes comprising the rat chorioallantoic placenta can be readily identified: Trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast cells represent endocrine cells of the rat placenta which belong to prolactines PRL family Soares, et al,PLP-A is a glycoprotein synthesized as two distinct mol wt species 29 and 33 kDa.
The rats placenta synthesizes lactogejo secretes a number ofpolypeptideand steroid hormones Soares, etal, Many of which are identical or at least, they resemble those produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary-target Jaffe, Despite it is well known that stressing situations simultaneously activate both axes: The activation of the sympathetic nervous system by the corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH results in the release of noradrenaline NA from the peripheric sympathetic nervous ends.
Sympathetic innervation reaches the adrenal medulla which releases adrenaline A in a greater proportion and also something of NA Nankova et alDe Boer et al, ; Curtin et a ; Kvetnansnky et al Increased plasma levels of A and NA are present in stress reaction, in order of importance, represent the stress second hormone.
We experimentally used young female primipar Wistar-albino rats days of to g. Food and water were administered ad libitum. The rats were cycled by colpocytograms in fresh to determine the estro pkacentario between Females in estro were kept with a male of the same strain and copula was verified by lacttogeno presence of spermatozoid in fresh vaginal exudates.
To carry out the programmed sacrifice, the day after spermatozoid were detected in vaginal fluid was considered as day zero of pregnancy. Pregnant females were separated in two groups: Control groups females remained in their cages until sacrifice.
lactógeno placentario humano – English Translation – Word Magic Spanish-English Dictionary
Chronic stress by immobilization IMO was applied to the experimental group females. Rats were immobilized on a wooden board 20 x 20 cm by taping their four limbs to metal mounts, according to the method described Michajloskij et al Each female was subjected to a 45 min stress session, from day 4 of gestation, 3 times a week, in the lactoegno and at variable times.
This process lasted until their sacrifice. VMA concentrations were determined considering the volumes of 24 h urine and the animal body weight. The animal was checked on the days 6, 12, 17 and 21 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats of the control and stress groups were sacrificed by decapitation on days 12,17 and 21 of gestation. Placenta were removed and kept plaxentario ice until processing. Obtention of placentary homogenates to apply immunoblot technique.
Homogenates were centrifuged in the cold at X g for 15 min. Relative concentrations of PL-II and PLP-A protein in the placenta of control and stressed rats, during the second half of gestation were estimated by immunoblotting. Samples were suspended in sweep buffer Protein concentrations of the cytosol preparations were estimated by method of Bradford.
Cytosol preparations were separated by SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis in A marker of an appropriate molecular weight was seeded on a lane of the gel and an extra run lane of homogenate that was used as negative control.
Electrophoresis was done on sweep buffer 0. lacyogeno
Efficiency of transfer was confirmed with 0. Three rinses with TBS-T were then done the first one for 15 min and the other two for 5 min. It was incubated for 1 hour at room temperature, with the second corresponding antibody rabbit anti-IgG, prepared in goat, 1: Each band was swept in two dimensions and specific density was corrected according to the back signal in the run laftogeno.
Data represent the corrected values of the densities obtained from 4 independent samples at a minimum and they are expressed as arbitrary unities and lactkgeno to the control value. The placenta obtained at days 12,17, and 21 days of pregnancy were fixed in phosphate buffer PBS, pH 7.
Then they were rinsed in PBS, dehydrated through an placentsrio ascending grades cleared in xylene and paraffine embedded.
Tissue cuts of urn thick were deparaffinized, hydrated and H 2 0 2 treated to block endogenous peroxidase. After washing, they were treated. Finally, the sections were incubated with ‘ -diaminobencidine, in the presence of H 2 0 2 to reveal peroxidase expression sites.
The reaction was stopped in distilled water. These antibodies were provided by Dr. University of Kansas Medical Center. The localization of both placentary prolactines coincided with Cambell etal. Note the intense staining in the tgc cytoplasm and nucleus, around glycogen cell gc in JZ and laberynth zone LZfrom days 17 and 21 control and stressed pregnancy rats C-D-E-F.
No differences were evidenced neither in immunomarked cellular types nor in the immunomark intensity between the stressed rats placenta respecting those of the control ones. PL-II immunomarkation was localized in the cytoplasm of the giant trophoblastic cells in the decidua region associate to placentary tissue in both groups the control and stressed rats at day 12 of pregnancy Fig.
The comparative analysis between placenta of control and stressed rats of 17 and 21 days of pregnancy did not show substantial changes neither in the distribution nor in the intensities of the immunomarks of PL-II and PLP-A proteins.
These results are shown in Figs. Immunocytochemical analysis of PL-II with sections of placental tissue from days 12, 17 and 21 control and stressed A-F. PL-II was staining in the trophoblast giant cells tgc cytoplasm, located at the interface between the chorioallantoic placenta and uterine deciduas, from day 12 of pregnancy rats A-B. The effects of chronic stress applied to gestating mothers, on the concentrations of PL II in the placentary tissue at 12,17 and 21 days of pregnancy, were analyzed using the immunoblot technique Fig.
Representative immunoblots, probed with antipeptide antisera specific to PL-II, in placentary homogenates on days 12, 17, 21 of pregnancy, in stressed and control rats. No significant statistical differences were observed between the mean values of the concentrations of PL-II between the placentary homogenates of stressed rats and control ones without treatment at days 12, 17 and 21 of pregnancy Fig.
Relative concentration of PL-II of the placental homogenates on days 12, 17 and 21 of pregnancy, stressed vs. PLP-A concentrations in placentary tissue of rats chronically stressed were quantified. Representative immunoblots, probed with antipeptide antisera specific to PLP-A of 33 kDa and PLP-A de 29 kDain placentary homogenates on days 12,17,21 of pregnancy, in stressed and control rats. Response of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary axis of rats subjected to stress during gestation.
Considering that the second of the peripheral systems of the response to stress, is the activation of SAM and that one of the indicator parameters of this axis functioning are the concentrations of catecholamines A and NA, the levels of 3-methoxy 4-hydroxymandelic VMA acid were evaluated. Since this acid is one of the metabolites of catecholamines, it was evaluated in the urine of pregnant rats to relate these peripheric values to the results obtained from the different variables analyzed in placentary homogenates from mothers under the effects of chronic stress.
The catecholamine metabolites, 3-methoxy 4-hydroxymandelic VMA acid as well as homovanilic acid oactogeno found in animals urine. VMA is produced as metabolite of both A as well as NA from the sympathetic nervous system, central and peripheric and from the adrenal gland Amam, et al.
Placntario stress sessions were performed and on days 6, 12, 17 and 21 of pregnancy the urines corresponding to both groups studied were extracted. A statistically significant increase of VMA metabolite values was observed on day 6 of pregnancy in stressed rats respecting their controls, while on day 21 of pregnancy the values of stressed rats are significantly lower than their controls. As pregnancy develops VMA values in stressed rats urine decreased on times 12, 17 and 21 compared to day 6 of gestation.
A significant increase of VMA levels was observed in the control animals on day plaxentario compared to days 12 and 17 of pregnancy.
Studies on the response of hypophisiary PRL stress are not concluding. Williams et al, did not find any variations in the levels of maternal PRL in stressed rats when applying LMO chronic stress and accute stress by means of several stressors. However, Armario et al. We have demonstrated an increase in the plasmatic concentration of maternal PRL on stressed rats in their 17 day of pregnancy followed by a significant decrease towards the end of gestation Sofiez et al, On the other hand, there are receptors of high affinity to estrogen and progesterone in placentary JU which leads to presume some direct effect of these steroids on the PL II expression in this area.
Besides, the fetectomy reduces PL II levels in maternal serum in the second stage of gestation Cambell et al. PL-II participates in the signals translation to activate the receptor of pituitary PRL; these ligands are critical to maintain pregnancy during the half of pregnancy and just before delivery when a decrease of hypophisiary PRL levels takes place Soares et al, Some factors liberated by decidua that have not been identified yet, control the gradual declination of expression of PL II and an increase of PLP-A in the bounding zone of rat plancenta Cambell et al.
Neither concentrations of PL-II nor the PLP-A concentrations showed alterations in placentary tissue of rats subjected to chronic IMO stress at the three stages of pregnancy studied when they were compared with their respective controls. This result coincides with those obtained by some other authors Cambell et al. It is known that the PLP-A biological activity is to bound to “natural killer” lymphocytes, in a specific way, in the mesometrial compartment of the uterus of pregnant rats, “natural killer” lymphocytes participle in the immune response, they increase in the half of pregnancy and then decrease at the end of this Placentaeio Heiner Liu etal.
One of the peripherical stress markers are the levels of catecholamines metabolites, indicators of SAM axis response. High concentrations of VMA were found in urine of stressed pregnant rats when analyzing this at the beginning of day placentatio of pregnancy. According to Fukuda et al, NA is liberated under psychological stimulus and since, LMO stress is a very strong physical stimulus, the VMA increase at the beginning of pregnancy would be a consequence of the liberation of A by the sympathetic nervous system.
When the stimulus is repeated in a chronic way there is a decrease in catecholamines production that might be explained lactogeni a consequence of the habituation to the same stimulus Kvetnasnsky et al; Kant et al. A VMA decrease may be also observed on day 21 of pregnancy in stressed rats respecting to the control. This demonstrates a rapid loss of VMA placentaio towards the end of pregnancy.
This might be due either to an exhaustion of the SAM axis or to the fact that repeated expositions to chronic stress produce a decrease in A and NA liberation what is interpreted as an adaptation of the axis to this system Rodriguez,